Monday, March 9, 2009

Building Peer-to-peer connection

1. Create a simple peer-to-peer network between two PCs.

Connect two PCs to create a simple peer-to-peer Ethernet LAN between two workstations. The workstations will be directly connected to each other without using a hub or switch. The computers must also be configured with the correct IP network settings so that they can communicate . A category 5/5E UTP crossover cable is needed. This is very useful for transferring files and for troubleshooting interconnecting devices between PCs. Two Workstations required with an Ethernet 10/100 NIC installed.

2. Identify the Proper cable to connect the two PCs.

Locate a crossover cable that is long enought to reach from one PC to the other, attach one end to the NIC in each PCs.

3. Configure workstation IP address Information

Assigned a valid IP address for each PCs included subnest mask, default gateway. Note that the default gateway IP Address is not required, since this computers are directly connected.

Wndows XP users follow this steps: 1. click on start > settings> Control panel and then click Network connection icon. 2. Select Local Area Network connection and click on change settings of this connection. 3. Select TCP/IP protocol icon that is associated with the NIC in this PC.
4. Click on prperties and click on use the following IP address.

Example: PC 1 IP address Subnet MASK
PC 2 IP address Subnet mask

4. Test Connectivity using ping commands

Access the command or MS-DOS prompt. Windows XP : start>Progarms>Accessories>Command Promp.

Verify that PCs can communicate; Test connectivity from one PC to the other by pinging the IP address of the opposite computer.

EXample: c:>ping
or c:> ping

what was the result?

example result :

Pinging 192.168.1. with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from : bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=150
Reply from : bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=150
Reply from : bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=150
Reply from : bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=150

Ping statistics for
Packets: sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in mili-seconds:
Minimum = Oms, Maximum = Oms, Average = Oms

Computer quotes

"The computer will become the hub of a vast network of remote data stations and information banks feeding into the machine at a transmission rate of a billion or more bits of information a second. Laser channels will vastly increase both data capacity and the speeds with which it will be transmitted. Eventually, a global communications network handling voice, data and facsimile will instantly link man to machine--or machine to machine--by land, air, underwater, and space circuits. [The computer] will affect man's ways of thinking, his means of education, his relationship to his physical and social environment, and it will alter his ways of living... These forces] will coalesce into what unquestionably will become the greatest adventure of the human mind." --- David Sarnoff, President of RCA, **1964**

huh! Just read this quotes this early morning and I am really amazed by this quotes . How about you?

Friday, March 6, 2009

LAN & WAN Devices

LAN & WAN Devices consist of different devices such as router, hub switch, gateway and more. This devices link up all the local and remote network segments with each other. The two important devices of network are Routers and Switches.

LAN Devices:

A hub is a networking device, which is used to connect the two segments of a wired network.

A network switch performs the same functionality in a network as a hub except a different that switch does not broadcast the data packets to all the computers in a network like a hub. A network switch has multiple ports like 4, 8, 16 and 24 etc. All the computers in a wired network are directly connected with the switch through Ethernet cable. Switches limit the traffic to and from each port and all the devices connected to the switch has maximum available bandwidth. Switch doesn’t provide the built-in firewall capabilities like the routers. In the telecommunication and packet switched infrastructure switches play an important role. They transmit the data towards its destination based on the IP address.

LAN card, network interface card or NIC is used to join the computers in a network. A NIC card is installed in any available PCI port inside the computer.

A gateway can be hardware or software and it acts as a bridge between two networks. A gateway is an entrance point of a network. A gateway connects a LAN with internet. A router acts as a gateway device in a network. In big networks, a computer server which acts as a gateway also acts as a proxy server and a firewall server. A gateway computer is usually attached with the router and switch.

A repeater is a network device that is used to retransmit the weaker signals in a network. A repeater receives the signals on the electromagnetic or optical transmission mediums. Repeater removes the unwanted noise from the incoming signals.

WAN Devices:

A router is a network communication device that is used to connect two or more logically and physically different networks. A router can be used to connect a LAN to LAN, LAN to WAN and LAN to internet. A router acts as a post office where sorting and distribution of the posts (packets in case of routers) is done. A router works on the basis of an IP address. Every router has built-in operating system known as IOS. A router works on the network layer of the OS model and it routes the data towards the optimal path. Router uses the header information of the packets and forwarding table to define the best shortest possible path of the data.

ISDN Adaptors

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is a data communication method and it is used over the regular telephone lines. To use the ISDN lines, you need to install add-on adapters known as ISDN terminal adapters. ISDN Terminal Adapter works like a digital modem i.e. it converts the signals from digital to analog and vice versa. ISDN Terminal adapter is plugged into the serial port of the system. Some ISDN adapters have the feature of switching between digital and analog modes.


CSU/DSU stands for channel service unit and data service unit. CSU is used to connect a terminal to a digital line. DSU is used to perform the protective and diagnostic functions of the telecommunication line. CSU/DSU is a network device of the size of an external modem. The Channel service unit receives and transmits the signals from the wide area network line. CSU/DSU are two separate devices and they are sometimes used in conjunction with the T1 LAN cards.


A bridge is a network communication device that is used to connect two segments of a LAN that uses the same protocol. Bridge is like a router but it doesn’t analyze the data before sending. A bridge operates at the data link layer of the OSI model and it can be used to connect the physically different networks and the networks that use the different protocols such as Ethernet and Token Ring.


A modem is communication device that performs two different functions such as modulation and demodulation i.e. it converts the digital data into analog and analog into digital. The faster types of the modems are used by the internet such as DSL modem, cable modem and optical modems. The features like BPS, auto answer, data compression, voice/data, fax capability and flash memory distinguish one modem from the other.


Network bridge and router combined together to form a device known as brouter.

Tuesday, February 24, 2009

Computer Networking Overview

Education for the Internet generation is globally competitive. They aim to innovate education initiatives, providing interactive tools, transforming individuals and developing programs with potential resources, activities, comprehensive skills for better education in the future.

What is Networking?

Computer networking is the engineering discipline concerned with communication between computer systems or devices. Networking, routers, routing protocols, and networking over the public Internet have their specifications defined in documents called RFCs.[Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, computer science, information technology and/or computer engineering. Computer networks rely heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of these scientific and engineering disciplines.

A computer network is any set of computers or devices connected to each other with the ability to exchange data.

Example of different networks are:

  • Local area network (LAN), which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area.
  • Wide area network (WAN) that is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area.
  • Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN.
All networks are interconnected to allow communication with a variety of different kinds of media, including twisted-pair copper wire cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber, and various wireless technologies. The devices can be separated by a few meters (e.g. via Bluetooth) or nearly unlimited distances (e.g. via the interconnections of the Internet.

Thursday, February 19, 2009

What is LAN, WAN, MAN, Wireless ?

Networking is a complex part of computing that makes up most of the IT Industry. Without networks, almost all communication in the world would cease to happen. It is because of networking that telephones, televisions, the internet, etc. work.

One way to categorize computer networks is by their geographic scope, although many real-world networks interconnect Local Area Networks (LAN) via Wide Area Networks (WAN)and wireless networks[WWAN].

Local area network (LAN)

A local area network is a network that spans a relatively small space and provides services to a small number of people.

A peer-to-peer or client-server method of networking may be used. A peer-to-peer network is where each client shares their resources with other workstations in the network. Examples of peer-to-peer networks are: Small office networks where resource use is minimal and a home network. A client-server network is where every client is connected to the server and each other. Client-server networks use servers in different capacities. These can be classified into two types:

1. Single-service servers
2. print server,

where the server performs one task such as file server, ; while other servers can not only perform in the capacity of file servers and print servers, but they also conduct calculations and use these to provide information to clients (Web/Intranet Server). Computers are linked via Ethernet Cable, can be joined either directly (one computer to another), or via a network hub that allows multiple connections.

Wide area network (WAN)

A wide area network is a network where a wide variety of resources are deployed across a large domestic area or internationally. An example of this is a multinational business that uses a WAN to interconnect their offices in different countries. The largest and best example of a WAN is the Internet, which is a network composed of many smaller networks. The Internet is considered the largest network in the world. The PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) also is an extremely large network that is converging to use Internet technologies, although not necessarily through the public Internet.

A Wide Area Network involves communication through the use of a wide range of different technologies. These technologies include Point-to-Point WANs such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC), Frame Relay, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) and Sonet (Synchronous Optical Network). The difference between the WAN technologies is based on the switching capabilities they perform and the speed at which sending and receiving bits of information (data) occur.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

A metropolitan network is a network that is too large for even the largest of LAN's but is not on the scale of a WAN. It also integrates two or more LAN networks over a specific geographical area ( usually a city ) so as to increase the network and the flow of communications. The LAN's in question would usually be connected via "backbone" lines.

Wireless networks (WLAN, WWAN)

A wireless network is basically the same as a LAN or a WAN but there are no wires between hosts and servers. The data is transferred over sets of radio transceivers. These types of networks are beneficial when it is too costly or inconvenient to run the necessary cables. For more information, see Wireless LAN and Wireless wide area network. The media access protocols for LANs come from the IEEE.

The most common IEEE 802.11 WLANs cover, depending on antennas, ranges from hundreds of meters to a few kilometers. For larger areas, either communications satellites of various types, cellular radio, or wireless local loop (IEEE 802.16) all have advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the type of mobility needed, the relevant standards may come from the IETF or the ITU.

Monday, February 16, 2009

Networking fundamentals & Terminology

Networking terminology:

Bandwidth decisions are among the most important considerations when a network is designed. This module discusses the importance of bandwidth and explains how it is measured.

Layered models are used to describe network functions. This module covers the two most important models, which are the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model and the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) model. The module also presents the differences and similarities between the two models.

A brief history of networking. Readers will learn about network devices and different types of physical and logical layouts, also defines and compares LANs, MANs, WANs, SANs, and VPNs.

Data networks developed as a result of business applications that were written for microcomputers. The microcomputers were not connected so there was no efficient way to share data among them. It was not efficient or cost-effective for businesses to use floppy disks to share data. Sneakernet created multiple copies of the data. Each time a file was modified it would have to be shared again with all other people who needed that file. If two people modified the file and then tried to share it, one of the sets of changes would be lost. Businesses needed a solution that would successfully address the following three problems:

* How to avoid duplication of equipment and resources
* How to communicate efficiently
* How to set up and manage a network

In the mid-1980s, the network technologies that emerged were created with a variety of hardware and software implementations. Each company that created network hardware and software used its own company standards. These individual standards were developed because of competition with other companies. As a result, many of the network technologies were incompatible with each other. It became increasingly difficult for networks that used different specifications to communicate with each other. Network equipment often had to be replaced to implement new technologies.

The history of computer networking is complex. It has involved many people from all over the world over the past 35 years. Presented here is a simplified view of how the Internet evolved. The processes of invention and commercialization are far more complicated, but it is helpful to look at the fundamental development.

In the 1940s computers were large electromechanical devices that were prone to failure. In 1947 the invention of a semiconductor transistor opened up many possibilities for making smaller, more reliable computers. In the 1950s large institutions began to use mainframe computers, which were run by punched card programs. In the late 1950s the integrated circuit that combined several, and now millions, of transistors on one small piece of semiconductor was invented. In the 1960s mainframes with terminals and integrated circuits were widely used.

In the late 1960s and 1970s smaller computers called minicomputers were created. However, these minicomputers were still very large by modern standards. In 1977 the Apple Computer Company introduced the microcomputer, which was also known as the Mac. In 1981 IBM introduced its first PC. The user-friendly Mac, the open-architecture IBM PC, and the further micro-miniaturization of integrated circuits led to widespread use of personal computers in homes and businesses.

In the mid-1980s PC users began to use modems to share files with other computers. This was referred to as point-to-point, or dial-up communication. This concept was expanded by the use of computers that were the central point of communication in a dial-up connection. These computers were called bulletin boards. Users would connect to the bulletin boards, leave and pick up messages, as well as upload and download files. The drawback to this type of system was that there was very little direct communication and then only with those who knew about the bulletin board. Another limitation was that the bulletin board computer required one modem per connection. If five people connected simultaneously it would require five modems connected to five separate phone lines. As the number of people who wanted to use the system grew, the system was not able to handle the demand. For example, imagine if 500 people wanted to connect at the same time.

From the 1960s to the 1990s the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) developed large, reliable, wide-area networks (WANs) for military and scientific reasons. This technology was different from the point-to-point communication used in bulletin boards. It allowed multiple computers to be connected together through many different paths. The network itself would determine how to move data from one computer to another. One connection could be used to reach many computers at the same time. The WAN developed by the DoD eventually became the Internet.

Read more ...

Dictionary of A-Z Network Terminology
Internet ACCES and Services
Network Hardware
Network Troubleshooting

References: , Cisco Networking book,

Adobe Dreamweaver is a web development application originally created by Allaire Systems, which was acquired around 1998 by Macromedia and is now owned by Adobe Systems, which acquired Macromedia in 2005.

Dreamweaver is available for both Mac and Windows operating systems. Recent versions have incorporated support for web technologies such as CSS, JavaScript, and various server-side scripting languages and frameworks including ASP.NET, ColdFusion, JavaServer Pages (JSP), and PHP.


As a WYSIWYG Presto-based editor, Dreamweaver can hide the HTML code details of pages from the user, making it possible for non-coders to create web pages and sites. One criticism of this approach is that it can produce HTML pages whose file size and amount of HTML code is larger than an optimally hand-coded page would be, which can cause web browsers to perform poorly. This can be particularly true because the application makes it very easy to create table-based layouts. In addition, some web site developers have criticized Dreamweaver in the past for producing code that often does not comply with W3C standards, though recent versions have been more compliant. Dreamweaver 8.0 performed poorly on the Acid2 Test, developed by the Web Standards Project. However, Adobe has increased the support for CSS and other ways to lay out a page without tables in later versions of the application, with the ability to convert tables to layers and vice versa.

Dreamweaver allows users to preview websites in many browsers, provided that they are installed on their computer. It also has some site management tools, such as the ability to find and replace lines of text or code by whatever parameters specified across the entire site, and a templatisation feature for creating multiple pages with similar structures. The behaviours panel also enables use of basic JavaScript without any coding knowledge.

Dreamweaver can use "Extensions" – small programs, which any web developer can write (usually in HTML and JavaScript). Extensions provide added functionality to the software for whoever wants to download and install them. Dreamweaver is supported by a large community of extension developers who make extensions available (both commercial and free) for most web development tasks from simple rollover effects to full-featured shopping carts.

Like other HTML editors, Dreamweaver edits files locally, then uploads all edited files to the remote web server using FTP, SFTP, or WebDAV. Dreamweaver CS4 now supports the Subversion (SVN) version control system.

[edit] Syntax highlighting

As of version 6, Dreamweaver supports syntax highlighting for the following languages out of the box:

* ActionScript
* Active Server Pages (ASP). Previous versions supported ASP 1.1. ASP support has been dropped entirely in version CS4.
* C#
* Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
* ColdFusion
* Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML)
* Extensible Markup Language (XML)
* Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT)
* HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
* Java
* JavaScript
* JavaServer Pages (JSP)
* PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP)
* Visual Basic (VB)
* Visual Basic Script Edition (VBScript)
* Wireless Markup Language (WML)

It is also possible to add your own language syntax highlighting to its repertoire.

In addition, code completion is available for many of these languages.

Macromedia Flash 8

Adobe Flash (previously called Macromedia Flash) is a multimedia platform created by Macromedia and currently developed and distributed by Adobe Systems. Since its introduction in 1996, Flash has become a popular method for adding animation and interactivity to web pages; Flash is commonly used to create animation, advertisements, and various web page components, to integrate video into web pages, and more recently, to develop rich Internet applications.

Flash can manipulate vector and raster graphics and supports bi-directional streaming of audio and video. It contains a scripting language called ActionScript. Several software products, systems, and devices are able to create or display Flash content, including Adobe Flash Player, which is available for most common web browsers, some mobile phones and other electronic devices (using Flash Lite). The Adobe Flash Professional multimedia authoring program is used to create content for the Adobe Engagement Platform, such as web applications, games and movies, and content for mobile phones and other embedded devices.

Files in the SWF format, traditionally called "ShockWave Flash" movies, "Flash movies" or "Flash games", usually have a .swf file extension and may be an object of a web page, strictly "played" in a standalone Flash Player, or incorporated into a Projector, a self-executing Flash movie (with the .exe extension in Microsoft Windows). Flash Video (FLV) files have a .flv file extension and are either used from within .swf files or played through a flv aware player, such as VLC, or QuickTime and Windows Media Player with external codecs added.

Sunday, February 15, 2009

basic HTML sample myspace graphic comments
Welcome Graphic Comments

HTML, an initialism of HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for Web pages. It provides a means to describe the structure of text-based information in a document — by denoting certain text as links, headings, paragraphs, lists, and so on — and to supplement that text with interactive forms, embedded images, and other objects. HTML is written in the form of tags, surrounded by angle brackets. HTML can also describe, to some degree, the appearance and semantics of a document, and can include embedded scripting language code (such as JavaScript) which can affect the behavior of Web browsers and other HTML processors.
Hope this video can help you getting started HTML good luck!